Single Mode Filter

Microwave and RF filters are of immeasurable importance to wireless equipment because they are always located between the input and output stages of the RF and microwave active circuits. Microstrip planar filters are preferred for integration in low-power transceiver systems because they possess the properties of compact size, flexible layout, low cost, and easy fabrication …

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The Inverter

In the process of designing a lumped element filter, the circuit layout that is usually used to realize the filter is known as the "ladder network". Why ladder? Simply saying, because the layout looks like a ladder. The picture below shows a ladder network that is consisting of only resistors. In a lumped element lowpass …

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Microwave Filter in Satellite Communication

In the previous article, we learnt how microwave filters are used in military around the world in the form of electronic warfare. Today, lets look at how microwave filters are used in satellites. The emergence of satellite technologies in the 1970s has further driven the needs for microwave filters after the increase in importance during …

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Microwave Filter in Electronic Warfare

It has been shown in the past article "The 5G Liver" that microwave filter plays an extremely and equally important role as the human liver which remove interference in any wireless communications. But besides than removing interference, microwave filter is also a key component in creating interference. When is that needed? you would say. It …

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Designing Interdigital Filter

There are many distributed line topology that can be used to design a filter. One of these is the Interdigital topology. The interdigital utilizes multiple cascading coupled lines arranged in such a way that the termination of each stub (or called resonator) is alternate between short and open circuit. As one of the planar transmission …

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Why are Cell Towers Placed on Hilltops?

I'm sure we all notice it, on top of a hill, one would often see a lone solitary telecommunication tower stand amidst the surrounding vegetation and trees. Although not a must, a telecommunication tower is often built on higher elevations. This is due to the mode in which microwave propagate, which is called Line-of-Sight (LOS) …

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How to Design Impedance Matching

When designing schematics, impedance matching is an importance process to ensure minimum loss of the design. When a schematic is mismatched, it will result in high reflection of the input signal, this would translate into transfer loss. A schematic that is matched will ensure the lowest possible loss theoretically, that is maximum power transfer. When …

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5 Minutes Introduction to EM Wave

In the previous article, we mentioned that James Maxwell unified the electric and magnetic fields by combining the four Maxwell’s equations into a single wave equation which predicts the existence of the electromagnetic (EM) wave. The discovery of EM wave is a major breakthrough in modern physics because it let us understand the phenomena of …

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