When designing schematics, impedance matching is an importance process to ensure minimum loss of the design. When a schematic is mismatched, it will result in high reflection of the input signal, this would translate into transfer loss. A schematic that is matched will ensure the lowest possible loss theoretically, that is maximum power transfer. When observing the S-parameter, the S11 which indicates the reflection loss will tell how high is the signal reflection of the circuit. When S11 > 0, it means there is reflection in the schematic. Although is impossible to get S11 = 0 in the real world, in theory, a design should aim for S11 = 0. This would mean that the theoretical schematic has no reflection loss.
When designing using EDA tools, an additional component is usually added to act as the impedance matching component. The process of finding the impedance matching can be done by evaluating the S11 response using the Smith Chart. By tuning the component, the impedance needed for S11 = 0 can be discovered.
In this week video, we demonstrate a simple tutorial on how to perform impedance matching using Smith Chart and Tuning.